Surgical Procedures

Surgical Procedures

When the blood flow to the heart is increased by any surgical means, the procedure is called as coronary artery bypass grafting. There are many variations in the procedure depending on the kind and severity of disease, as well as associated abnormalities developed due to the disease, these are as follows
This is the gold standard treatment for coronary artery disease, against which all other therapies are currently compared. Coronary Bypass is a surgical method to redirect the blood around the section of a partially or fully blocked artery of a human heart. It is done to improve the blood flow to the muscles of the heart. In this procedure, a healthy blood vessel is taken from the patient’s chest, leg, arm, or abdomen and then connected beyond the blocked arteries in the heart.
It is undertaken to ease the symptoms of chest pain and breathlessness. This procedure can’t cure heart disease but can improve the functioning of the heart and reduce the risk of dying of heart disease. It is usually considered when a person has severe chest pain caused due to narrowing of the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. It is also done when a person has more than one diseased coronary artery, and when the left ventricle of the heart is not functioning well.
This surgery can be performed in emergencies when the patient is not responding to other treatments. One needs to make lifestyle changes after the surgery and take the prescribed medications.

Types of Surgical Procedures For Heart

There are several types of surgical repair (heart surgeries) for the heart. Below is a list of the most common type of heart surgery procedures:

  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) – The surgeon takes a healthy vein from less important area of your body and bypasses it with the blocked artery to normalize the blood.
  • Heart valve replacement – The surgeons either repair or replace the damaged valve either with the artificial one or the biological one made from pig, cow or human heart tissue.
  • Insertion of the pacemaker – A surgeon may implant a pacemaker under your chest or abdomen’s skin and its wires are connected to your heart chambers.
  • Maze surgery – Maze surgery is a procedure to treat atrial fibrillation. The surgeon creates a pattern of scar tissue in the upper chamber of your heart to redirect the electric signals to the lower chamber of your heart.
  • Aneursym repair – The surgeon replaces the weak section of your heart valve with a patch or graft.
  • Heart transplant – A diseased heart is replaced with a healthy heart from a deceased donor.
  • Ventricular assist device insertion – A mechanical pump is inserted to support the functions of the heart.

Risks Associated With The Heart Surgery

  • Bleeding
  • Infection from the surgery
  • Damage to the tissues of heart, kidneys, liver and lungs
  • Stroke
  • Reactions to anesthesia

Beating Heart Bypass

On-pump Bypass surgery

Bypass with LV Aneurysm Repair

Bypass with valve repair/replacement

Bypass with carotid endarterectomy

Opinion based on American heart association guidelines

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